January 1, 2023

ISBNآئی ایس بی این

ISBN (International Standard Book Number) is a unique 10- or 13-digit identifier that is assigned to books and other printed materials to identify and distinguish them from one another. The ISBN is used by booksellers, libraries, and other organizations to identify and track books and other published materials.

The ISBN is issued by the International ISBN Agency, which is responsible for assigning and managing ISBNs. Each ISBN is unique to a specific book or publication, and it is used to identify and locate that specific book or publication. The ISBN is typically included on the copyright page of a book, and it is also used in bibliographic databases to help identify and locate specific books and other published materials.

ISBNs are useful for librarians, booksellers, and other professionals who need to keep track of and access published materials. They help to ensure that these materials can be accurately and consistently identified and tracked over time.

ISSNآئی ایس ایس این

ISSN (International Standard Serial Number) is a unique eight-digit identifier that is assigned to serial publications, such as magazines, newspapers, and journals. The ISSN is used to identify and track these types of publications, which are typically issued on a regular basis (e.g. weekly, monthly, quarterly).

The ISSN is issued by the International ISSN Center, which is an international organization that is responsible for assigning and managing ISSNs. Each ISSN is unique to a specific publication, and it is used to identify and distinguish that publication from others. The ISSN is typically included on the masthead or title page of a publication, and it is also used in bibliographic databases to help identify and locate specific publications.

ISSNs are useful for librarians, researchers, and other professionals who need to keep track of and access serial publications. They help to ensure that these publications can be accurately and consistently identified and tracked over time.


An issue can refer to a problem or matter that needs to be addressed or resolved. It can also refer to a topic or theme that is being discussed or debated.

For example, an issue might be a problem that needs to be solved, such as a malfunctioning piece of equipment or a disagreement between two people. In this context, addressing the issue might involve fixing the equipment or finding a way to resolve the disagreement.

An issue can also refer to a topic or theme that is being discussed or debated, such as a social or political issue. In this context, an issue might be something like climate change, healthcare reform, or racial inequality. Discussing or addressing an issue in this sense might involve discussing the topic, considering different perspectives or solutions, and working towards finding a resolution or solution to the issue.

An Interloan or Interlibrary loan or Document deliveryانٹر لون یا انٹرلائبریری لون یا دستاویز کی ترسیل

An interloan, also known as an interlibrary loan (ILL) or document delivery, is a service offered by libraries that allow users to borrow books, articles, and other materials from libraries outside their own system. If a user is unable to find a particular book or article at their local library, they can request it through interloan. The library will then try to borrow the item from another library and have it delivered to the user’s library for them to check out.

Interloan is a convenient way for users to access materials that are not available at their local library. It is often used by university students and researchers who need access to specialized materials for their studies. There may be fees associated with interloan services, depending on the library’s policies and the cost of borrowing the materials.

Instant Messagingفوری پیغام رسانی

Instant messaging (IM) is a real-time, text-based form of communication that allows people to communicate with one another over the internet. IM is typically done through a computer program or mobile app that allows users to send and receive messages in real time.

One of the main advantages of IM is that it allows users to have a conversation in real-time, rather than waiting for a response as they would with email. This makes it a faster and more efficient way to communicate, especially when time is of the essence. IM is also a popular way to communicate because it is often free and does not require a phone connection.

IM is commonly used for personal communication, but it is also used in business settings as a way for coworkers to communicate and collaborate on projects. Some popular IM programs include Skype, Slack, and Google Chat.


An index is a list of words or phrases and the corresponding page numbers where those words or phrases can be found in a book, document, or other text. An index is typically found at the end of a book or document and is used to help readers find specific information quickly and easily. An index may also include cross-references, which are references to other places in the text where related or additional information can be found.

In addition to being a useful tool for readers, an index can also be an important part of the writing process. When creating an index, writers must carefully review their work and identify the key concepts and terms that are discussed in the text. They must then decide how these concepts and terms should be organized and listed in the index. This process can help writers clarify their own thinking about the content of their work and make it easier for readers to understand and follow the argument or discussion.


Ibid is short for the Latin term “ibidem,” which means “in the same place.” It is used in academic writing as a way to refer to a previously cited source, typically in a list of references or a bibliography. For example, if you are writing a paper and you have already cited a source, you can use ibid to refer to that same source later in your paper without repeating the full citation. Instead, you can simply use ibid followed by the page number(s) if the reference is to a specific page in the source. For example: “According to Smith (2020), the earth is round (p. 23). Ibid., p. 27.” This means that you are referring to the same source (Smith, 2020) on page 27 as you previously cited on page 23.

Ibid لاطینی اصطلاح "ibidem" کے لیے مختصر ہے جس کا مطلب ہے "ایک ہی جگہ"۔ یہ علمی تحریر میں استعمال کیا جاتا ہے ایک طریقہ کے طور پر جس کا حوالہ پہلے دیا گیا ماخذ ہے، عام طور پر حوالہ جات یا کتابیات کی فہرست میں۔ مثال کے طور پر، اگر آپ ایک مقالہ لکھ رہے ہیں اور آپ نے پہلے ہی ایک ماخذ کا حوالہ دیا ہے، تو آپ مکمل حوالہ دہرائے بغیر اپنے مقالے میں بعد میں اسی ماخذ کا حوالہ دینے کے لیے ibid استعمال کر سکتے ہیں۔ اس کے بجائے، اگر حوالہ ماخذ میں کسی مخصوص صفحہ کا ہو تو آپ آسانی سے ibid کا استعمال کر سکتے ہیں جس کے بعد صفحہ نمبر (s)۔ مثال کے طور پر: "سمتھ (2020) کے مطابق، زمین گول ہے (p. 23). Ibid.، p. 27." اس کا مطلب ہے کہ آپ صفحہ 27 پر اسی ماخذ (Smith, 2020) کا حوالہ دے رہے ہیں جیسا کہ آپ نے پہلے صفحہ 23 پر حوالہ دیا تھا۔


Holdings refer to the materials that a library, museum, or other organization has in its collection. It can include books, manuscripts, photographs, artifacts, and other types of materials. The holdings of an organization may be physical, meaning that the materials are stored on-site and can be accessed in person, or they may be digital, meaning that they can be accessed electronically. An organization’s holdings may be listed in a catalog or database and may be available for research or for the loan to patrons. The holdings of an organization can be used to understand the focus and scope of the organization’s collection and to identify resources that are available for research or study.

High Demand

In a library, high demand refers to materials that are in high demand or are being used frequently by patrons. These materials may include popular books, movies, music, or other items that are borrowed often or have a long waitlist. Libraries may keep a high-demand collection to ensure that these materials are readily available to patrons. High-demand materials may be placed on hold or reserved for patrons, and they may have shorter loan periods or be subject to additional fees to encourage their timely return.

Hardcopyہارڈ کاپی

Hardcopy refers to a physical copy of a document, such as a book, report, or article, that has been printed on paper. It is the opposite of a digital copy, which exists in electronic form and can be accessed and read on a computer or other electronic device. Hardcopy documents are often used as a permanent record or reference and can be stored and accessed physically, as opposed to digitally, where they may be more prone to being lost or deleted. Hardcopy documents are also sometimes referred to as “paper copies” or “printed copies.”

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