When was printing started in Europe?یورپ میں طباعت کب شروع ہوئی؟

The printing press was invented in Europe in the mid-15th century. It is generally believed that the first printing press was developed by Johannes Gutenberg, a German goldsmith and inventor, around the year 1440. Gutenberg is credited with developing the first movable type printing system, which allowed for the mass production of printed materials. Before the printing press, books and other written materials were produced by hand, a process that was time-consuming and expensive. The invention of the printing press revolutionized the way books were produced and made it possible for written works to be disseminated more widely and more quickly.

Tell any other form of books besides the paper books in modern times?دور جدید میں کاغذی کتابوں کے علاوہ کتابوں کی کوئی اور شکل بتائیں؟

here are several other forms of books besides traditional paper books that are widely available and used in modern times:

  1. E-books: E-books, or electronic books, are digital versions of books that can be read on electronic devices such as computers, tablets, and smartphones. They can be purchased and downloaded from online retailers and are often less expensive than physical books.
  2. Audiobooks: Audiobooks are audio recordings of books that can be listened to on electronic devices such as phones, tablets, and MP3 players. They are popular with people who prefer to listen to books rather than read them, or who have visual impairments that make reading difficult.
  3. Braille books: Braille books are books that are written in a tactile writing system used by people who are blind or have low vision. They are produced using a special printing press that embosses raised dots onto paper, and they can be read using the fingers.
  4. Large print books: Large print books are books that have larger text than traditional books, which makes them easier to read for people with visual impairments.
  5. Digital comics: Digital comics are electronic versions of comic books that can be read on electronic devices such as tablets and smartphones. They are becoming increasingly popular as a way to access and read comics.

What was the use of parchment in ancient times?قدیم زمانے میں پارچمنٹ کا استعمال کیا تھا؟

Parchment is a writing material made from animal skin, and it has been used for centuries as a medium for writing, printing, and art. In ancient times, parchment was used for a variety of purposes, including:

  1. Writing: Parchment was often used as a writing surface for documents, books, and other written materials. It was more durable than papyrus and could be reused, making it a popular choice for important documents that needed to last a long time.
  2. Printing: Parchment was used as a printing surface in the production of books and other printed materials.
  3. Art: Parchment was also used as a support for drawings and paintings, particularly in the medieval period.
  4. Maps: Parchment was often used to make maps and other types of technical drawings, due to its strength and durability.
  5. Musical scores: Parchment was sometimes used to write down musical scores and other types of music notation.

Parchment was widely used throughout the ancient world and continued to be used for many centuries, until it was eventually replaced by paper in the modern era

How is modern paper made?جدید کاغذ کیسے بنایا جاتا ہے؟

Modern paper is made from wood pulp, which is a fibrous material made by mechanically grinding wood down into a fine, pulpy mass. The wood pulp is mixed with water and other chemicals to create a slurry, which is then pressed and dried to create sheets of paper.

There are several steps involved in making paper from wood pulp:

  1. Logs are harvested from trees and transported to a paper mill.
  2. The logs are debarked and cut into small chips, which are then cooked in a chemical solution to break down the fibers and remove impurities.
  3. The pulp is washed and screened to remove any remaining impurities, then mixed with water to create a slurry.
  4. The slurry is poured onto a moving mesh screen, which drains off the excess water and leaves a thin layer of fibers on the screen.
  5. The fibers on the screen are pressed and dried to remove even more water, creating a sheet of paper.
  6. The paper is rolled onto large cylinders and allowed to dry completely, then cut into the desired size and shape.

On which material were the books written in ancient times?قدیم زمانے میں کتابیں کس مواد پر لکھی جاتی تھیں؟

In ancient times, books were often written on materials like papyrus, parchment, and vellum.

Papyrus was a writing material made from the pith of the papyrus plant, which was commonly found in ancient Egypt. The pith was cut into thin strips and laid out in overlapping layers, then pressed and dried to create a smooth surface for writing. Papyrus was cheap and widely available, so it was often used for everyday documents like letters and receipts. However, it was not very durable and would quickly deteriorate if not stored carefully.

Parchment is a writing material made from animal skin, usually from cows, sheep, or goats. The skin was prepared by soaking it in water and lime, then stretching it on a frame and scraping it to remove any remaining flesh and hair. Parchment was more durable than papyrus and could be reused, making it a popular choice for documents that needed to last a long time, such as legal contracts and deeds.

Vellum is a finer quality parchment made from the skin of a calf, lamb, or kid. It is smoother and more flexible than regular parchment and was often used for important documents and books.

Books written on these materials were often hand-copied by scribes and were expensive to produce, so they were usually reserved for religious texts, legal documents, and other important works. Do you have any other questions about the materials used for writing in ancient times?


The term “verso” can refer to the back side of a leaf of a book or other publication, as opposed to the “recto,” which is the front side. In traditional books, the verso is typically the left-hand page when the book is open, and the recto is the right-hand page.

The term “verso” can also be used more broadly to refer to the back or reverse side of any object or surface. In this context, it can be used to describe the back of a painting, the underside of a piece of furniture, or the back of a coin, for example.

In the context of books and other publications, there are no specific types of “verso” pages. The verso is simply the back side of a leaf or page, and it can contain any type of content.

That being said, there are many different types of content that can be found on the verso side of a page, depending on the purpose and format of the publication. Some common types of content that might be found on the verso side of a page include:

  • Text: The verso can contain any type of written content, such as a story, an article, or a poem.
  • Illustrations: The verso can contain drawings, photographs, or other visual elements that support or enhance the content of the publication.
  • Ads: Many publications, such as magazines and newspapers, include advertisements on the verso side of their pages.
  • Notes: The verso can contain notes, annotations, or other supplementary information that is not part of the main text.
  • Blank pages: Some publications, such as sketchbooks or journals, may include blank pages on the verso for the reader to use.

Overall, the content of the verso side of a page can vary widely depending on the purpose and format of the publication.


In a library, a request is a request for a specific item or service. Some examples of requests that might be made in a library include:

  1. Requesting a book or other item from the library’s collection: This could involve asking a librarian to locate a specific book or other item and have it made available for you to check out.
  2. Requesting a copy of an article or other material: This could involve asking a librarian to locate a copy of an article or other material that is not available in the library’s collection and either provide you with a copy or help you obtain one through interlibrary loan or other means.
  3. Requesting a room or other space: This could involve asking a librarian to reserve a room or other space in the library for a specific purpose, such as studying or holding a meeting.
  4. Requesting research assistance: This could involve asking a librarian to help you find information on a specific topic or research question.
  5. Requesting access to a special collection or restricted material: This could involve asking a librarian for permission to access a special collection of rare or unique materials or to use equipment or facilities that are normally restricted.


“Renew” can have multiple meanings depending on the context in which it is used. Some common meanings of “renew” include:

  1. To make something new or fresh again: This could involve repairing or replacing something that has become worn out or damaged, or it could involve updating or modernizing something that has become out of date.
  2. To extend the duration of something: This could involve renewing a subscription, a contract, or a license.
  3. To revive or restore something: This could involve bringing something back to its former state or condition, or it could involve bringing something back into use or popularity.
  4. To reaffirm or reinforce something: This could involve expressing or demonstrating a commitment to something, or it could involve strengthening or reinforcing something that has become weakened or weakened over time.

Reference book

A reference book is a type of book that is intended to be used as a resource for finding information on a wide range of topics. Reference books are typically organized in an alphabetical or thematic manner and include information that is intended to be used as a quick and reliable source of information. Examples of reference books include dictionaries, encyclopedias, atlases, and handbooks. These books are often used in libraries, schools, and other educational settings as a resource for research and learning. They can also be found in homes and offices as a source of information for everyday use.

There are many different types of reference books, including:

  1. Dictionaries: These provide definitions and pronunciation guides for words in a particular language.
  2. Encyclopedias: These provide detailed information on a wide range of topics, such as history, science, and art.
  3. Atlases: These contain maps and other geographic information, such as population statistics and climate data.
  4. Thesauruses: These provide synonyms and antonyms for words.
  5. Almanacs: These contain a wide range of facts and figures, such as dates of holidays, astronomical data, and historical events.
  6. Handbooks: These provide practical information and guidance on a particular subject or activity.
  7. Directories: These list names, addresses, and other contact information for individuals or organizations.
  8. Statistic and data sources: These provide numerical information and data on a wide range of topics, such as economic indicators, population statistics, and political polls.

Recreational reading

Recreational reading is the act of reading for enjoyment, rather than for work or study. Recreational reading can be done for a variety of purposes, such as to relax, to escape from everyday life, to learn something new, or to be entertained. Recreational reading can take many forms, including reading books, magazines, or online articles, and can be done in a variety of settings, such as at home, in a park, or on a beach. Many people find recreational reading to be an enjoyable and rewarding hobby, and there is a wide range of materials available to suit different interests and preferences.

There are many different types of materials that can be used for recreational reading, including:

  1. Books: These can include fiction, non-fiction, and poetry, and can cover a wide range of genres, such as mystery, romance, science fiction, and biographies.
  2. Magazines: These can focus on a particular subject or interest, such as fashion, food, or current events, and often include articles, interviews, and photographs.
  3. Online articles: These can be found on websites and blogs and can cover a wide range of topics, such as news, entertainment, and personal interests.
  4. Graphic novels: These are books that tell a story using a combination of words and illustrations, and can include genres such as science fiction, fantasy, and horror.
  5. Audiobooks: These are recordings of books that can be listened to on a device or through a streaming service.
  6. Comics: These are collections of illustrated stories that can be found in print or online.
  7. Poetry: These are collections of written works that are designed to be read for enjoyment and often focus on themes such as love, nature, and emotions.
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