Holdings refer to the materials that a library, museum, or other organization has in its collection. It can include books, manuscripts, photographs, artifacts, and other types of materials. The holdings of an organization may be physical, meaning that the materials are stored on-site and can be accessed in person, or they may be digital, meaning that they can be accessed electronically. An organization’s holdings may be listed in a catalog or database and may be available for research or for the loan to patrons. The holdings of an organization can be used to understand the focus and scope of the organization’s collection and to identify resources that are available for research or study.

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A database is a collection of organized data stored and accessed electronically. Databases are used to store, organize, and manage data, and are used in a wide variety of applications, such as online stores, libraries, and customer relationship management systems. Some common types of databases include relational databases, which store data in tables with rows and columns, and NoSQL databases, which use a variety of data models, such as documents, graphs, and key-value pairs. There are many database management systems (DBMS) available, ranging from open-source options like MySQL and PostgreSQL, to proprietary systems like Oracle and Microsoft SQL Server.

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