The printing press was invented in Europe in the mid-15th century. It is generally believed that the first printing press was developed by Johannes Gutenberg, a German goldsmith and inventor, around the year 1440. Gutenberg is credited with developing the first movable type printing system, which allowed for the mass production of printed materials. Before the printing press, books and other written materials were produced by hand, a process that was time-consuming and expensive. The invention of the printing press revolutionized the way books were produced and made it possible for written works to be disseminated more widely and more quickly.
Papermaking was introduced to Europe in the 12th century, when paper mills were established in Spain and Italy. The technology for making paper was brought to Europe from the Islamic world, which had acquired it from China during the 7th century AD.
The first paper mill in Europe is believed to have been established in the city of Xativa, in Spain, in the 1140s. The mill was founded by Moors, who had been producing paper in the Islamic world for several centuries. From Spain, the technology for making paper spread to Italy and other parts of Europe, and paper mills were established in several cities throughout the region.
Papermaking in Europe was a slow process at first, with paper being produced in small quantities and at high prices. However, as the demand for paper grew and production methods improved, paper became more widely available and affordable. By the 15th century, the paper was being mass-produced in Europe and was used for a wide range of purposes, including writing, printing, and art.