system

What people used cuneiform system of writing?کن لوگوں نے تحریر کا کینیفارم سسٹم استعمال کیا؟

The cuneiform script was an ancient writing system that was used by the ancient Sumerians, who lived in what is now modern-day Iraq. The cuneiform script was one of the earliest systems of writing in the world, and it was used by the Sumerians to record a wide range of information, including laws, religious texts, and accounts of daily life.

The cuneiform script was written using a stylus or reed pen to make marks on clay tablets. The marks were made by pressing the stylus or pen into the clay at different angles to create a series of wedge-shaped marks, which represented different sounds or ideas. The cuneiform script was an ideographic writing system, which means that it used symbols or pictures to represent ideas or concepts rather than the sounds of a particular language.

The cuneiform script was used by the Sumerians for many centuries, and it was later adopted by other cultures in the region, such as the Akkadians and the Babylonians. It continued to be used as a writing system until the 1st century AD, when it was replaced by the alphabet. Today, the cuneiform script is still studied by historians and linguists as an important part of the history of writing and language.

Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH)لائبریری آف کانگریس سبجیکٹ ہیڈنگز

Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) is a standardized set of terms and phrases that are used to describe and classify the subjects of books and other materials in the collections of the Library of Congress and many other libraries around the world. LCSH is used to assign subject headings to books and other materials and to organize them in the library’s catalog so that users can find and access relevant materials more easily.

The LCSH system includes over 1.5 million subject headings and is updated regularly to reflect changes in knowledge and research. The subject headings are arranged alphabetically and are hierarchical, meaning that more specific terms are listed under more general terms. LCSH is used to describe a wide range of subjects, including literature, history, science, and technology, and they are intended to be as comprehensive and inclusive as possible.

In addition to helping users find and access materials, LCSH is also used to facilitate the sharing of information between libraries and to support the development of library collections.

Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) system

The Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) system is a system of library classification used to organize and arrange books and other materials in a library. It was developed by Melvil Dewey in the 1870s and is still in widespread use today.

The DDC is based on a system of ten main classes, each representing a broad subject area. These main classes are further divided into smaller divisions, and then into even smaller sections until each book or material is assigned a unique classification number. The classification numbers are arranged in a decimal format, with the first digit representing the main class, the second and third digits representing the division, and so on.

For example, the number “500” represents the natural sciences and mathematics, while the number “540” represents chemistry and “550” represents earth sciences. Within the earth sciences section, the number “550.1” represents geology, and “550.2” represents meteorology.

The DDC is used to organize and arrange books and materials in a library, and to help library patrons find the materials they are looking for. It is also used to create library catalogs and bibliographies.

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