written

Which group of people wrote on clay table?مٹی کی میز پر کس گروہ نے لکھا؟

One group of people who wrote on clay tablets were the ancient Sumerians, who lived in what is now modern-day Iraq. The Sumerians invented a system of writing called cuneiform, which involved pressing a reed stylus into clay tablets to create symbols and marks. They used these clay tablets to record a wide variety of information, including laws, business transactions, and literature.

The ancient Babylonians, who also lived in Mesopotamia, also used clay tablets to record information. They used a similar writing system called cuneiform and recorded many of the same types of information as the Sumerians, including laws, business transactions, and literature.

Other ancient civilizations that used clay tablets to record information include the Assyrians, the Persians, and the Elamites. These tablets were often baked in kilns to harden them, making them more durable and able to last for thousands of years. Many ancient clay tablets have been preserved and are now housed in museums around the world, providing a valuable source of information about the history and culture of these ancient civilizations.

On which material were the books written in ancient times?قدیم زمانے میں کتابیں کس مواد پر لکھی جاتی تھیں؟

In ancient times, books were often written on materials like papyrus, parchment, and vellum.

Papyrus was a writing material made from the pith of the papyrus plant, which was commonly found in ancient Egypt. The pith was cut into thin strips and laid out in overlapping layers, then pressed and dried to create a smooth surface for writing. Papyrus was cheap and widely available, so it was often used for everyday documents like letters and receipts. However, it was not very durable and would quickly deteriorate if not stored carefully.

Parchment is a writing material made from animal skin, usually from cows, sheep, or goats. The skin was prepared by soaking it in water and lime, then stretching it on a frame and scraping it to remove any remaining flesh and hair. Parchment was more durable than papyrus and could be reused, making it a popular choice for documents that needed to last a long time, such as legal contracts and deeds.

Vellum is a finer quality parchment made from the skin of a calf, lamb, or kid. It is smoother and more flexible than regular parchment and was often used for important documents and books.

Books written on these materials were often hand-copied by scribes and were expensive to produce, so they were usually reserved for religious texts, legal documents, and other important works. Do you have any other questions about the materials used for writing in ancient times?

Monographمونوگراف

A monograph is a scholarly book or a long essay that is written about a single subject or topic. Monographs are typically written by experts in a particular field and are intended for a specialized audience of researchers or scholars. They are often used to present the results of original research or to provide an in-depth analysis of a particular subject. Monographs are typically longer than journal articles and maybe more comprehensive in their coverage of a subject. They are often published by academic presses or other organizations that specialize in publishing scholarly works.

Hardcopyہارڈ کاپی

Hardcopy refers to a physical copy of a document, such as a book, report, or article, that has been printed on paper. It is the opposite of a digital copy, which exists in electronic form and can be accessed and read on a computer or other electronic device. Hardcopy documents are often used as a permanent record or reference and can be stored and accessed physically, as opposed to digitally, where they may be more prone to being lost or deleted. Hardcopy documents are also sometimes referred to as “paper copies” or “printed copies.”

Classification

Classification is the process of organizing things into groups or categories based on shared characteristics or features. Classification can be used to organize a wide range of things, including living and non-living organisms, physical objects, and abstract concepts. There are many different ways to classify things, and the specific method used will depend on the purpose of the classification and the characteristics of the things being classified.

For example, scientists use classification to organize living organisms into a hierarchy of groups based on their characteristics. This hierarchy starts with the domain, which is the largest and most inclusive group, and then proceeds through the kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species. This system of classification, known as the Linnaean system, is used to give every species a unique scientific name that is recognized internationally.

Classification can also be used in other fields, such as library science, where books and other materials are organized into categories based on their subject matter, and in information technology, where data is organized into categories for easier access and analysis.

Biography

A biography is a written account of someone’s life. It is a type of nonfiction writing that provides a detailed and factual account of a person’s experiences, thoughts, and feelings. Biographies can cover a wide range of topics, including the person’s childhood, education, career, relationships, and other significant events in their life.

Biographies are often written to document the accomplishments or experiences of a person and may include reflections on the lessons learned and challenges faced throughout their life. They may also be written to provide a historical record of the person’s life or to share their personal story with others. Biographies can be written in a variety of styles and tones, ranging from formal to informal, and may include photographs and other personal artifacts to provide context and illustrate the person’s experiences.

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