What is Parchment and its use in Libraries ? پارچمنٹ سے کیا مراد ہے
Parchment is a material that is made from the skin of animals, such as sheep, goats, or calves. It is a durable and flexible material that was widely used in the past for writing and bookmaking.
To make parchment, the skin of an animal is first soaked in water to loosen the hair and flesh. The hair and flesh are then scraped off, and the skin is stretched and treated with lime to remove any remaining impurities. After the skin has been treated, it is dried and stretched on a frame to create a smooth and uniform surface.
Parchment has a number of characteristics that make it an ideal material for writing and bookmaking. It is strong and durable, and it does not yellow or crumble like paper does over time. Parchment is also resistant to water and other elements, which makes it well-suited for use in humid environments.
Parchment has a long history, and it was widely used in the ancient world for writing and bookmaking. It was used by the ancient Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans, and it continued to be used throughout the Middle Ages and into the modern era. Today, parchment is still used in some religious and ceremonial contexts, and it is also used in the production of high-quality books and documents.
some examples of parchment documents and artifacts:
- The Dead Sea Scrolls: These ancient Jewish texts are written on parchment and date back to the 1st century BCE. The scrolls were discovered in the 1940s in the vicinity of the Dead Sea and are considered to be one of the most important discoveries of ancient texts in the 20th century.
- The Lindisfarne Gospels: This illuminated manuscript is a copy of the Gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John and is written on parchment. It was produced in the 7th or 8th century CE on the island of Lindisfarne in Northumbria (now England) and is considered to be a masterpiece of Anglo-Saxon art.
- The Codex Sinaiticus: This is one of the oldest and most important surviving copies of the Bible. It is written on parchment in Greek and is thought to date back to the 4th century CE. The Codex Sinaiticus is now housed in the British Library in London.
- The United States Constitution: The original copy of the United States Constitution is written on parchment. It was signed by the delegates to the Constitutional Convention in 1787 and is now on display at the National Archives in Washington, D.C.Parchment has a long history and has been used for writing and bookmaking for thousands of years. It was first used in ancient civilizations, such as the ancient Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans. Parchment was widely used in the ancient world for writing and bookmaking, and it continued to be used throughout the Middle Ages and into the modern era.
The use of parchment declined with the invention of the printing press in the mid-15th century, which made it possible to produce books on a larger scale and at a lower cost. However, parchment has continued to be used in some religious and ceremonial contexts, and it is also used in the production of high-quality books and documents.