Describe the historical development of Cataloguing Codes?کیٹلاگنگ کوڈز کی تاریخی ترقی کی وضاحت کریں؟
The history of cataloging codes can be traced back to the 19th century, with the creation of the first standardized cataloging rules by the American Library Association (ALA) in 1876. These rules, known as the ALA Cataloging Rules, were designed to standardize the cataloging of books in libraries and were based on the practice of creating catalog cards by hand. The ALA Cataloging Rules were the first set of guidelines to be widely adopted by libraries in the United States and laid the foundation for future cataloging codes.
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, many other countries developed their own cataloging codes, including Great Britain and Germany. The British Library published the Rules for the Construction of Ruled Catalog Cards in 1898, which were later revised and expanded to become the Rules for a Printed Dictionary Catalog in 1911. In Germany, the Deutsche Bibliothek published the Regeln für die alphabetische Katalogisierung in 1911, which were widely used in German-speaking countries.
In the mid-20th century, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) created the International Standard Bibliographic Description (ISBD), which was adopted by many libraries around the world as a basis for cataloging. The ISBD provided a standardized format for cataloging books and other materials, and was designed to be compatible with different languages and scripts.
In 1967, the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules (AACR) were published, and it was widely used in many libraries in anglo-Saxon countries. The AACR was a revision of the ALA Cataloging Rules, and it was developed jointly by the American Library Association and the Library Association of Great Britain. The AACR provided a detailed set of guidelines for cataloging books and other materials, and it was widely adopted by libraries in North America and other English-speaking countries.
In the late 20th century, with the advent of computer technology, cataloging codes became more complex and sophisticated, with the development of machine-readable cataloging (MARC) codes, which allowed for the creation of electronic catalogs. MARC codes provided a standardized format for encoding bibliographic information in a machine-readable form, which allowed libraries to create and share electronic catalogs more easily.
In the 21st century, a new set of cataloging rules known as Resource Description and Access (RDA) was published, which is a result of the collaboration between library communities around the world to create a new set of rules that can be used for describing and providing access to all types of resources in any format, and it’s compatible with the new technologies and the changing user needs. RDA replaces the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules (AACR2) and is designed to be more flexible and adaptable to new technologies and changing user needs.