Overdueزائد المیعاد

Overdue refers to materials that have not been returned to a library by the date they were due. When an item becomes overdue, the borrower may be charged a fine or fee. The amount of the fine or fee can vary depending on the type of material and the policies of the particular library. Some libraries have automated systems that send reminders to patrons when an item is overdue or about to become overdue. Overdue materials can also cause problems for other patrons who may be waiting for the item, so it is important for borrowers to return materials on time.

Overdueزائد المیعاد Read More »

Non-printنان پرنٹ

Non-print materials are any type of media that cannot be physically printed on paper, such as audio and video recordings, DVDs, CDs, and online resources. Non-print materials are an important part of many libraries’ collections and can be used by patrons to access a wide range of information and educational resources. Non-print materials can be especially useful for patrons who have visual impairments or who prefer to access information in a different format, such as through audio recordings or online resources.

Non-printنان پرنٹ Read More »

Interlibrary Loanانٹرلائبریری لون

Interlibrary loan (ILL) is a service offered by libraries that allow patrons to borrow books and other materials from libraries outside their own system. If a patron is unable to find a book or other item at their own library, they can request it through ILL and the library will try to borrow the item from another library. Interlibrary loans can be a useful service for patrons who are unable to find a particular item at their local library or for libraries that have limited resources and need to borrow materials from other libraries to meet the needs of their patrons.

Interlibrary Loanانٹرلائبریری لون Read More »

Librarian لائبریرین

A librarian is a person who is trained and responsible for managing and organizing a library. Librarians are responsible for acquiring, cataloging, and maintaining the library’s collection of books and other materials, and for providing access to these resources to library users. Librarians may also be responsible for managing the circulation of materials, providing reference services to help users find information, and offering instruction and guidance on using the library and its resources. In addition to their work in traditional libraries, librarians may also work in digital libraries, archives, and other types of information centers. The profession of librarianship requires specialized education and training, and librarians often hold advanced degrees in library science or a related field.

Librarian لائبریرین Read More »


A fine is a penalty, usually in the form of a monetary payment, that is imposed for breaking a law or rule. Fines are often used as a punishment for minor offenses, such as traffic violations or littering, and they are typically paid to the government or a regulatory agency. The amount of a fine is usually determined by the severity of the offense, and it is typically set by law or by a court. In some cases, fines may be accompanied by other penalties, such as community service or the loss of a privilege, such as a driver’s license.

In a library, a fine is a fee that is imposed for returning books or other materials after the due date. Libraries often have a fine policy in place to encourage patrons to return materials on time and to ensure that materials are available for others to use. The amount of the fine is usually based on the type of material and the length of the loan period, and it is typically set by the library. Some libraries may also charge a fee for lost or damaged materials. Fines can typically be paid at the library or online, and they are often waived or reduced if the materials are returned or replaced.

Fine Read More »

Endnoteاختتامی نوٹ

EndNote is a software program that is used to manage and organize research materials, such as articles, papers, and books. It is often used by students, researchers, and writers to keep track of their sources, generate bibliographies and citations and share research materials with others. EndNote provides tools for organizing, annotating, and citing sources, and it can be used to create in-text citations, footnotes, and bibliographies in a variety of citation styles. EndNote is available as a standalone program or as a cloud-based service, and it can be used in conjunction with word processing software, such as Microsoft Word, to insert citations and create formatted bibliographies.

Endnoteاختتامی نوٹ Read More »


An editor is a person who is responsible for preparing written material for publication. This can include checking the accuracy, style, and formatting of the work, as well as making any necessary revisions or changes. Editors may work on a wide range of materials, including books, magazines, newspapers, websites, and other published works. They may also specialize in a particular type of content, such as fiction, non-fiction, or technical writing. Editors often work with authors and other team members, such as designers and proofreaders, to ensure that the final product is of high quality and meets the standards of the publisher or organization.

Editorایڈیٹر Read More »

Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) system

The Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) system is a system of library classification used to organize and arrange books and other materials in a library. It was developed by Melvil Dewey in the 1870s and is still in widespread use today.

The DDC is based on a system of ten main classes, each representing a broad subject area. These main classes are further divided into smaller divisions, and then into even smaller sections until each book or material is assigned a unique classification number. The classification numbers are arranged in a decimal format, with the first digit representing the main class, the second and third digits representing the division, and so on.

For example, the number “500” represents the natural sciences and mathematics, while the number “540” represents chemistry and “550” represents earth sciences. Within the earth sciences section, the number “550.1” represents geology, and “550.2” represents meteorology.

The DDC is used to organize and arrange books and materials in a library, and to help library patrons find the materials they are looking for. It is also used to create library catalogs and bibliographies.

Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) system Read More »

Conference proceedings

Conference proceedings are the published collection of papers that are presented at a conference. Conference proceedings may be published in a variety of formats, including print, online, or digital download. They are usually produced after a conference has taken place and are intended to provide a record of the conference and to make the papers presented at the conference available to a wider audience. Conference proceedings may include a wide range of materials, such as abstracts of the papers presented, full-text versions of the papers, and any other materials related to the conference, such as keynote speeches and panel discussions. Conference proceedings are an important resource for researchers and are often used as a way to disseminate new research findings and ideas within a particular field.

Conference proceedings Read More »


A library catalog is a database of the materials held by a library. This can include books, periodicals, digital resources, and other types of materials. A library catalog is used to help users find the materials they are looking for, and it typically includes information such as the title, author, publication date, and a brief description of the material. Users can search the library catalog by keyword, title, author, or subject to find specific materials. Many libraries also have an online catalog that can be accessed remotely, allowing users to search for materials and place holds on items from anywhere with an internet connection.

Catalogue Read More »

error: Content is protected !!