Library Science journals are scholarly journals that focus on the study and practice of library and information science. They publish articles, research papers, and reviews on a wide range of topics related to library science, such as information organization, cataloging, classification, reference, and bibliometrics, digital libraries, library management, and user services. They also cover advances in technology and their impact on libraries and information centers, as well as new trends and developments in the field. These journals are aimed at librarians, library science professionals, and researchers in the field of library and information science.
A self-issue machine is a machine that is used in a library or other setting to allow users to check out or return items on their own, without the assistance of library staff. These machines typically have a user interface that allows users to scan their library card or enter their library card number, and then scan the barcode on the item they wish to check out or return. Some self-issue machines may also allow users to pay fines, renew items, or access other library services. Self-issue machines are often used in libraries to improve efficiency and reduce the workload of library staff, but they may also be used in other settings, such as rental or lending libraries, or to facilitate the check-out and return of equipment or other items.
There are several different types of self-issue machines that may be used in libraries and other settings. Some common types of self-issue machines include:
- Self-checkout machines: These machines allow users to check out library items on their own, by scanning their library card and the barcode on the item.
- Self-return machines: These machines allow users to return library items on their own, by scanning the barcode on the item.
- Self-service kiosks: These machines provide a range of services, including the ability to check out and return items, pay fines, renew items, and access other library services.
- Automatic book drop machines: These machines allow users to return library items without the assistance of library staff. The items are placed in a chute or bin, and are automatically checked in and processed by the library.
- RFID self-service machines: These machines use radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology to allow users to check out and return items by simply placing them near the machine, rather than scanning a barcode.
- Mobile self-checkout systems: These systems allow users to check out items using a mobile device, such as a smartphone or tablet, rather than using a self-issue machine.
The specific type of self-issue machine used may depend on the needs and resources of the library or other setting, as well as the preferences and preferences of the users.
Overdue refers to materials that have not been returned to a library by the date they were due. When an item becomes overdue, the borrower may be charged a fine or fee. The amount of the fine or fee can vary depending on the type of material and the policies of the particular library. Some libraries have automated systems that send reminders to patrons when an item is overdue or about to become overdue. Overdue materials can also cause problems for other patrons who may be waiting for the item, so it is important for borrowers to return materials on time.
An online catalog is a database that contains information about the materials in a library’s collection. It can include books, e-books, DVDs, CDs, and other types of materials. An online catalog allows patrons to search for materials by title, author, subject, and other criteria. It typically provides information about the location of a particular item within the library, as well as its availability (e.g., whether it is currently checked out or on the shelf). Many online catalogs also allow patrons to place holds on materials and renew items that they have checked out. An online catalog is often accessed through a library’s website and is an important tool for helping patrons find and access the materials they need.
Interlibrary loan (ILL) is a service offered by libraries that allow patrons to borrow books and other materials from libraries outside their own system. If a patron is unable to find a book or other item at their own library, they can request it through ILL and the library will try to borrow the item from another library. Interlibrary loans can be a useful service for patrons who are unable to find a particular item at their local library or for libraries that have limited resources and need to borrow materials from other libraries to meet the needs of their patrons.
Microfiche is a small card-like sheet of film that is used to store and display small images or documents, typically in the form of microfilm. Microfiche is used as a way to store and preserve information in a compact and easily accessible format.
Microfiche can be used to store a wide range of information, including documents, books, newspapers, photographs, and other types of records. Each microfiche typically contains a number of small images or pages of text, which can be viewed through the use of a microfiche reader or scanner. These devices use a light source and a magnifying lens to display the images or text on the microfiche, allowing users to view and read the information it contains.
Microfiche is often used in libraries, archives, and other institutions as a way to store and access large collections of historical or research materials. It is also sometimes used in businesses or other organizations as a way to store and retrieve records or other types of information.
The Library of Congress Classification (LCC) is a system of library classification that is used to organize and arrange the books and other materials in the collections of the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C. The LCC system is also used by many other libraries in the United States and around the world to classify and organize their collections.
The LCC is a detailed and complex system that divides knowledge into 21 main classes and includes over 200,000 individual subject categories. The main classes are arranged alphabetically and cover a wide range of subjects, including literature, language, history, science, and technology. Within each main class, the individual subject categories are arranged by topic and are assigned a unique classification number.
The LCC system is designed to be flexible and adaptable, and it is regularly updated to reflect changes in knowledge and research. It is used to help librarians and researchers find and access the information they need, and to make it easier for users to browse and discover new materials in the library’s collection.
A librarian is a person who is trained and responsible for managing and organizing a library. Librarians are responsible for acquiring, cataloging, and maintaining the library’s collection of books and other materials, and for providing access to these resources to library users. Librarians may also be responsible for managing the circulation of materials, providing reference services to help users find information, and offering instruction and guidance on using the library and its resources. In addition to their work in traditional libraries, librarians may also work in digital libraries, archives, and other types of information centers. The profession of librarianship requires specialized education and training, and librarians often hold advanced degrees in library science or a related field.
Ibid is short for the Latin term “ibidem,” which means “in the same place.” It is used in academic writing as a way to refer to a previously cited source, typically in a list of references or a bibliography. For example, if you are writing a paper and you have already cited a source, you can use ibid to refer to that same source later in your paper without repeating the full citation. Instead, you can simply use ibid followed by the page number(s) if the reference is to a specific page in the source. For example: “According to Smith (2020), the earth is round (p. 23). Ibid., p. 27.” This means that you are referring to the same source (Smith, 2020) on page 27 as you previously cited on page 23.
Ibid لاطینی اصطلاح "ibidem" کے لیے مختصر ہے جس کا مطلب ہے "ایک ہی جگہ"۔ یہ علمی تحریر میں استعمال کیا جاتا ہے ایک طریقہ کے طور پر جس کا حوالہ پہلے دیا گیا ماخذ ہے، عام طور پر حوالہ جات یا کتابیات کی فہرست میں۔ مثال کے طور پر، اگر آپ ایک مقالہ لکھ رہے ہیں اور آپ نے پہلے ہی ایک ماخذ کا حوالہ دیا ہے، تو آپ مکمل حوالہ دہرائے بغیر اپنے مقالے میں بعد میں اسی ماخذ کا حوالہ دینے کے لیے ibid استعمال کر سکتے ہیں۔ اس کے بجائے، اگر حوالہ ماخذ میں کسی مخصوص صفحہ کا ہو تو آپ آسانی سے ibid کا استعمال کر سکتے ہیں جس کے بعد صفحہ نمبر (s)۔ مثال کے طور پر: "سمتھ (2020) کے مطابق، زمین گول ہے (p. 23). Ibid.، p. 27." اس کا مطلب ہے کہ آپ صفحہ 27 پر اسی ماخذ (Smith, 2020) کا حوالہ دے رہے ہیں جیسا کہ آپ نے پہلے صفحہ 23 پر حوالہ دیا تھا۔
Holdings refer to the materials that a library, museum, or other organization has in its collection. It can include books, manuscripts, photographs, artifacts, and other types of materials. The holdings of an organization may be physical, meaning that the materials are stored on-site and can be accessed in person, or they may be digital, meaning that they can be accessed electronically. An organization’s holdings may be listed in a catalog or database and may be available for research or for the loan to patrons. The holdings of an organization can be used to understand the focus and scope of the organization’s collection and to identify resources that are available for research or study.